Business Architecture Core Metamodel Avatar
  1. OMG Specification

Business Architecture Core Metamodel — Open Issues

  • Acronym: BACM
  • Issues Count: 31
  • Description: Issues not resolved
Open Closed All
Issues not resolved

Issues Summary

Key Issue Reported Fixed Disposition Status
BACM11-53 Binding object BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-52 Relate Outcome to Performer BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-45 Customer Causation tagging of Outcomes BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-35 Sequencing of ValueStreamStages BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-25 Resolve ordering semantics for Outcome connections BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-23 Determine of the triggers association between Outcome and ValueStreamStage is needed. BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-15 Customer triggers ValueStream BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-14 Expand target of InformationItem isAbout BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-40 Change naming convention of OWL object properties and datatype properties BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-42 OWL TTL does not include UUIDs BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-38 Missing path specifications for some sortcut associations BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-30 The owns-0 association uses dash; all other associations use underscore to separate suffix. BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-20 Add "rdfs:label" predicate object to OWL ontology for all generated elements BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-29 Duplicated owned constraint elements in MOF XMI BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-10 Reconsider the packaging and namespace conventions BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-18 BACM Turtle File should use https rather than http BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-19 Remove "subClassOf owl:Thing" from OWL TTL file BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-6 Undocumented association "recordedAs" BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-57 No relationship between ProductOffering and Customer BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-55 Revise notes for "stateOf" to match glossary format BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-32 Operating Value Streams BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-31 Important shortcut supports relation between capability and ValueItem BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-28 Resolve specification of ownership and quantification in OWL specification BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-7 Policy concept is missing from specification BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-8 OWL TTL does not represent composition properly BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-9 OWL translates "generalizes_0" association incorrectly BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-11 rename "provides" association to "offers" BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-12 Define JSON interchange specification BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-17 Is Offering an InformationItem? BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-13 Reconsider ValueStream(Stage) produces as shortcut BACM 1.0b2 open
BACM11-16 Reconsider ValueCharacteristic BACM 1.0b2 open

Issues Descriptions

Binding object

  • Key: BACM11-53
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    The BIZBOK introduces the notion that value streams include the concept of a binding business object(s) whose state, together with entry and exit criteria controls the sequencing of value stream stages. How should BACM represent this concept? Is it explicit in the metamodel, or is it the result of analysis or some combination of these?

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Fri, 3 May 2024 18:36 GMT
  • Updated: Fri, 5 Jul 2024 00:29 GMT

Relate Outcome to Performer

  • Key: BACM11-52
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    The metamodel does not require Outcomes to be Produced by a Capability. Such Outcomes are used to model events that occur outside the capability map of the business, such a customer requesting to purchase an item the business has. The BACM metamodel does not have a way, other than an annotation, to indicate that the source of an Outcome is a Performer(Customer). An alternative approach would allow the customer to have capabilities that would produce such outcomes, but this would add model complexity with little benefit other than providing a connection between a Customer and an Outcome. Note that if BACM11-22 is adopted, outcomes are used to trigger value streams and such a connection between Customer and Outcome becomes critical.
    If such a relation is added to the metamodel, it should have a plausible interpretation when used to link an Outcome to a Performer that is in a Role with the Capability that produces the Outcome.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Fri, 26 Apr 2024 21:27 GMT
  • Updated: Fri, 5 Jul 2024 00:29 GMT
  • Attachments:

Customer Causation tagging of Outcomes

  • Key: BACM11-45
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    The BACM allows definition of an Outcome that is needed by a Capability and/or is an entryCriteria for a ValueStreamStage. Such an outcome can often be identified with a causation agent that is external to the organization. A modeler could resolve this by inventing a Capability (e.g. responsible for having a Customer create an order for a Product) that is in the external stakeholder environment and not in the enterprise environment. Alternatively, a new association could be created allowing such Outcomes to be associated with a Customer and indicating causation.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Thu, 4 Apr 2024 15:55 GMT
  • Updated: Fri, 5 Jul 2024 00:29 GMT

Sequencing of ValueStreamStages

  • Key: BACM11-35
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    ValueStreamStages are commonly ordered in display.
    There is a question about whether this implies an operational ordering that disallows temporal overlap and what semantics this ordering might be based on. This issue also relates to BACM11-3 concerning entry and exit criteria for ValueStreamStages.
    There is also a technical issue. UML allows for ordered associations. In practice these involve tagging links with an ordering value that is used to control the order in which links are iterated. This is also permitted in MOF. However, the actual ordering cannot be specified for the meta-model elements, only for their instances (which are the model classes).
    One solution would be to add a property to the ValueStreamStage whose value controls the ordering. However, MOF properties are typically translated to OWL as DatatypeProperties and have semantic consequences for individuals. A better solution for OWL would be to define an AnnotationProperty that either orders ValueStreamStages directly or defines an ordering value. This implies a UML/MOF Comment attached to each ValueStreamStage, whose body contains a predefined keyword and an ordering value. Alternatively, a Comment could link to two ValueStreamStage instances and specify the ordering relation between them.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Thu, 7 Mar 2024 19:00 GMT
  • Updated: Fri, 5 Jul 2024 00:29 GMT
  • Attachments:

Resolve ordering semantics for Outcome connections

  • Key: BACM11-25
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    The BACM uses Outcomes to connect AbstractCapabilities, AbstractProcesses and (with BACM11-22) ValueStreamStages. These Outcomes may imply ordering relationships between these activity meta-concepts. In addition, architects often want to define high level processes and workflows to associate with ValueStreams. Should the BACM define an ordering semantic and provide guidance on how to use it? What would the ordering semantic look like.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Thu, 11 Jan 2024 20:45 GMT
  • Updated: Fri, 5 Jul 2024 00:29 GMT
  • Attachments:

Determine of the triggers association between Outcome and ValueStreamStage is needed.

  • Key: BACM11-23
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    The addition of entryCriteria linking Outcome to ValueStreamStage appears to eliminate the need for the triggers association, since triggering is one of the functions subsumed by the entryCriteria relation and would imply the existence of an identical entryCriteria relation.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Thu, 11 Jan 2024 20:15 GMT
  • Updated: Fri, 5 Jul 2024 00:29 GMT

Customer triggers ValueStream

  • Key: BACM11-15
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    Consider whether/how to implement this concept which is defined in the BIZBOK and the Guild Metamodel whitepaper.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Tue, 28 Nov 2023 22:52 GMT
  • Updated: Fri, 5 Jul 2024 00:29 GMT

Expand target of InformationItem isAbout

  • Key: BACM11-14
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    The target of isAbout is currently restricted to BusinessObject but should be broadened to any concept in the AbstractOperatingModel or AbstractValueModel (except abstract constructs such as ValueStreams and Capabilities as those are documented in the business architecture model)

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Tue, 28 Nov 2023 22:49 GMT
  • Updated: Tue, 2 Jul 2024 19:47 GMT

Change naming convention of OWL object properties and datatype properties

  • Key: BACM11-40
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    In the OWL, namespaces were translated as IRI segments. Object properties and datatype properties were considered to be in the namespace created by their owning class (class stereotyped associations are reified in the translation to XMI and OWL). This made the use of qnames infeasible as the name part of the qname cannot contain multiple segments. Yet simple names cannot be used in the XMI or OWL because of name conflicts that are resolved by including the owning class namespace.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Thu, 4 Apr 2024 14:57 GMT
  • Updated: Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:58 GMT

OWL TTL does not include UUIDs

  • Key: BACM11-42
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    For versioning analysis, it is useful to have stable UUIDs for each element in the metamodel. These appear in the XMI and are used to link together elements of the metamodel. They are also in the EA UML model, but are not typically shown to the modeler. The properties of an element may change in editing, but the UUID does not, allowing change analysis to be performed on different versions of the metamodel. The OWL generation did not include the element UUIDs.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Thu, 4 Apr 2024 15:09 GMT
  • Updated: Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:58 GMT

Missing path specifications for some sortcut associations

  • Key: BACM11-38
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    When the association names were suffixed to avoid duplicate names, some of the shortcut PathSpecification tag values were not updated. The program that generates the MOF XMI file was not reporting the validation failures because of a programming error.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Sun, 17 Mar 2024 23:43 GMT
  • Updated: Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:58 GMT

The owns-0 association uses dash; all other associations use underscore to separate suffix.

  • Key: BACM11-30
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    See summary

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Tue, 20 Feb 2024 17:19 GMT
  • Updated: Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:58 GMT

Add "rdfs:label" predicate object to OWL ontology for all generated elements

  • Key: BACM11-20
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    Many ontology programs rely on or optionally support "rdf:label" for the display label in lieu of using the actual URI. This is recommended practice.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Thu, 28 Dec 2023 19:35 GMT
  • Updated: Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:58 GMT

Duplicated owned constraint elements in MOF XMI

  • Key: BACM11-29
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    Shortcut constraints appear to be duplicated. This is not the case in the UML model, so the problem appears to be in the program that converts the EA XMI export to MOF XMI.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Tue, 20 Feb 2024 17:08 GMT
  • Updated: Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:58 GMT

Reconsider the packaging and namespace conventions

  • Key: BACM11-10
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    The justification for namespaces is to permit parts of the model to be used independently. The current packaging is close, but crossmaps between value stream and capability are defined in Capability and crossmaps between ValueItem and Outcome are defined in Customer. Customer mixes together Journeys and Value Streams. Consider repackaging to eliminate crossmaps from the core packages and add new packages with just the crossmaps. This would also benefit use of the OWL as a group of ontologies instead of one large one.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Tue, 28 Nov 2023 22:21 GMT
  • Updated: Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:58 GMT

BACM Turtle File should use https rather than http

  • Key: BACM11-18
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mrs. Elisa F. Kendall)
  • Summary:

    The turtle file currently uses the old, insecure http protocol and per SMSC policy must use https.

    The resolution to this issue mainly impacts the machine-readable turtle file and should not impact the specification document aside from any place where the URI for the turtle file is mentioned.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Thu, 21 Dec 2023 18:31 GMT
  • Updated: Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:58 GMT

Remove "subClassOf owl:Thing" from OWL TTL file

  • Key: BACM11-19
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    Having this axiom explicit means that these classes can never be made subordinate to an ontology that is reusing the BACM ontology (e.g. such as an integrating or bridging ontology).

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Thu, 28 Dec 2023 19:30 GMT
  • Updated: Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:58 GMT

Undocumented association "recordedAs"

  • Key: BACM11-6
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    This association between Outcome and AbstractBusinessObject is undocumented. The association documentation is in generated material and several sections will be regenerated.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Wed, 15 Nov 2023 17:55 GMT
  • Updated: Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:58 GMT

No relationship between ProductOffering and Customer

  • Key: BACM11-57
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    The ability to associate products with customers is important. In the current metamodel, this connection can only be made by joining a customer targeted by a value proposition with a product offering where the value proposition is of the product offering. Should the metamodel include a direct relationship between product offering and customer? Should this relationship be a shortcut?

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Wed, 5 Jun 2024 16:47 GMT
  • Updated: Wed, 5 Jun 2024 16:47 GMT

Revise notes for "stateOf" to match glossary format

  • Key: BACM11-55
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    EA notes must contain definition and may contain usage and constraint paragraphs.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Tue, 28 May 2024 17:31 GMT
  • Updated: Tue, 28 May 2024 17:36 GMT

Operating Value Streams

  • Key: BACM11-32
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    Some organizations have developed what they call operating value streams. Sometimes these arise from application of "Lean" methdology. But, they may also arise from a desire to model the creation of value associated with particular product lines and analyze those representations of value with respect to the generic models of value creation provided by value streams.
    Specialization of value streams and stages is disallowed by the BIZBOK (to avoid the common methodological mistake of conflating value streams and processes). Is there a need for operating value streams? Is there a way to represent this that does not violate the BIZBOK?

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Thu, 7 Mar 2024 18:11 GMT
  • Updated: Sun, 10 Mar 2024 18:39 GMT

Important shortcut supports relation between capability and ValueItem

  • Key: BACM11-31
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    A frequently used matrix showing relations between product value items and capabilities can be created by query on the model. Adding a shortcut to the metamodel would allow the architect to specify intent that such a relationship exists in advance of actually creating the details in the model.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Thu, 22 Feb 2024 19:09 GMT
  • Updated: Thu, 22 Feb 2024 19:09 GMT

Resolve specification of ownership and quantification in OWL specification

  • Key: BACM11-28
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    In MOF metamodeling, OCL and other constraints apply to instances. In the BACM, these instances are also classes and inherit from their meta-classes (same for associations). In the translation to OWL, there is no instance/metaclass association and no mechanism (other than punning) that is useful. The instance model in OWL is created by specializing the BACM base model. E.g. VS is a specialization of ValueStream and VSS is a specialization of ValueStreamStage. But [VS owns VSS] must be stated for VSS to exist and [VS1 owns VSS] may not be stated for VS1 not equivalent to VS. This is a requirement on the ontology maintainer, not a requirement on the individuals that can be addressed by an OWL reasoner.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Sat, 10 Feb 2024 18:58 GMT
  • Updated: Sat, 10 Feb 2024 19:16 GMT

Policy concept is missing from specification

  • Key: BACM11-7
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    Policy is a common business concept. It is specified in the BIZBOK. Policy is also defined in the BMM.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Wed, 15 Nov 2023 18:32 GMT
  • Updated: Thu, 14 Dec 2023 18:29 GMT

OWL TTL does not represent composition properly

  • Key: BACM11-8
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    The MOF XMI owns_0 association is translated to an owl:ObjectProperty that is used with appropriate cardinalities in object property restriction axioms. But there is nothing that indicates that the association and its object property restrictions should have the cascading delete semantics. In the MOF2RDF specification, this is indicated by marking the object property as a subproperty of a "well-known" object property named "hasPart". The OWL version of BACM should follow this pattern.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Thu, 16 Nov 2023 17:51 GMT
  • Updated: Thu, 14 Dec 2023 18:21 GMT

OWL translates "generalizes_0" association incorrectly

  • Key: BACM11-9
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    BACM has this as an association prototype with semantics of inheritance between instances (that are also classes) to conform to MOF. RDFS already has the subClassOf and subPropertyOf predicates and generalizes_0 should be translated into one of these predicates.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Thu, 16 Nov 2023 17:56 GMT
  • Updated: Thu, 14 Dec 2023 18:20 GMT

rename "provides" association to "offers"

  • Key: BACM11-11
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    Current name can be confused with "provider" association that links Outcome with LegalEntity. This association links LegalEntity with Offering. Affects all product diagrams.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Tue, 28 Nov 2023 22:31 GMT
  • Updated: Fri, 1 Dec 2023 21:31 GMT

Define JSON interchange specification

  • Key: BACM11-12
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    JSON is an increasingly popular serialization format. JSON-LD provides some key additional capabilities.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Tue, 28 Nov 2023 22:35 GMT
  • Updated: Fri, 1 Dec 2023 21:21 GMT

Is Offering an InformationItem?

  • Key: BACM11-17
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    Adding this specialization would open a lot of other connections to Capabilities (e.g. that produce Offerings)

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Tue, 28 Nov 2023 23:01 GMT
  • Updated: Fri, 1 Dec 2023 21:16 GMT

Reconsider ValueStream(Stage) produces as shortcut

  • Key: BACM11-13
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    Consider Capability supports ValueStreamStage as the shortcut, justified by Capability producing Outcome valued by ValueItem produced by ValueStreamStage. This avoids a shortcut whose definition falls outside of the Customer package and would put it in the Capability/ValueStream crossmap package (per BACM11-9).

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Tue, 28 Nov 2023 22:43 GMT
  • Updated: Fri, 1 Dec 2023 21:10 GMT

Reconsider ValueCharacteristic

  • Key: BACM11-16
  • Status: open  
  • Source: Thematix Partners LLC ( Mr. James Rhyne)
  • Summary:

    The abstract syntax of this allows for value fit between value item and customer segment to be rolled up into an overall value fit between the value proposition and the customer, but it permits a lot of nonsense constructions as well. Consider splitting ValueCharacteristic into two parts: one between ValueProposition and Customer, and the other between ValueItem and CustomerSegment and have the latter owned by the former.

  • Reported: BACM 1.0b2 — Tue, 28 Nov 2023 22:57 GMT
  • Updated: Fri, 1 Dec 2023 20:34 GMT