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1 This Specification responds to the requirements set by the "Request for Proposals of PIM and PSM for Smart Antenna"(sbc/06-12-10) of a smart antenna subsystem that can be utilized for expanding to expand a single antenna system to an array antenna system.The Smart Antenna specification is physically partitioned into three major chapters: UML Profile for Smart Antenna (SA), SA PIM, and SA PSM. UML Profile for SA defines a language for modeling a smart antenna system by expanding the UML language.SA PIM provides a set of interfaces for interfacing with the signal processing module, RF module, and controller module. SA PSM provides a rule for transforming the elements of the profile and SA PIM into the platform specific model for CORBA IDL and XMLThe SA specification is related to "Communication Channel and Equipment Specification (formal/07-03-02)" volume in such a way that stereotypes and classes that have not been commented in the SA specification are defined in it.
2.1 A UML model of a specific SA either conforms to the SA profile or it does not. Such a UML model conforms to the SA profile if it satisfies all the constraints imposed by the profile package.
2.2.2 Supports expression of all the constructs defined by the profile, via UML 2.0 notation.
4 MetadataThe Data that represents a models. For example, a UML model; a CORBA object model expressed in IDL; and a relation database schema expressed using CWM.
7 This section defines the UML Profile for only a Smart Antenna only. The set of stereotypes and types that are not described in this section are defined in UML Profile for SWRadio components.
7.1 ComplexSequenceComplexSequence is an unbounded sequence of Complex(s). <<primitive>>ArrayAntennaTypeArrayAntennaType, a specialization of String, denote the physical configuration of an array antenna(e.g., Phased Array, Circular Array, etc.)
7.2.1 The ArrayAntenna stereotype, shown in Figure 1, represents an antenna array which consists of multiple antenna elements. The ArrayAntenna class shall have one or more AntennaElement's.Attributes <<configureproperty>>maxMutualCoupling: DecibelThe maxMutualCoupling is the maximum mutual coupling value between antenna elements. <<characteristicproperty>>bandwidth: HertzThe bandwidth attribute indicates the bandwidth of the physical array antenna. <<characteristicproperty>>interElementDistance: MeterThe interElementDistance attribute represents the physical distance between antenna elements. The id attributes represents the identification of the channel.
8 The SA Facilities has a dependency on the Communication Channel and Equipment Physical Layter Facilities as shown in Figure 2. Figure 3 illustrates the relation of the three facilities of SA. The Control Facilities, which include SAControl component, RFControl interface, SynchronizationControl interface, and AlgorithmControl interface, are used to control all algorithm operations performed in the digital signal processing parts and RF/IF operations such as analog to digital or digital to analog conversion. The Synchronization Facilities, which include SASynchronization component, CalibrationComponent component, Calibration interface, SynchronizationComponent component, and Synchronization interface, are used for RF chain calibration and symbol (or frame) synchronization. The CalibrationComponent component processes signals fed by the RFIFComponent component and the SynchronizationComponent component processes signals fed by the ModemComponent component. The Algorithm Facilities, which include the SAAlgorithm component and the Algorithm components, i.e. BeamformingComponent, STCComponent, SpatialMultiplexingComponent, DOAEstimationComponent, and ChannelEstimationComponent, and their interfaces, i.e. Beamforming, SpaceTimeCoding, SpatialMultiplexing, DOAEstimation, and ChannelEstimation respectively, are used to execute all the algorithms that are needed for the Smart Antenna System to provide superb performance compared to a Single Antenna System. Algorithm components process signals fed by the ModemComponent component. The Smart Antenna Subsystem shall implement a single SAControl component and one or more Algorithm component(s). More detailed explanations about interfaces among facilities in the SA are provided in the following sections.
8.1 In this section, each function and interface provided by the Control Facilities is described. Figure 4 illustrates Control Facilities that include SAControl component, Synchronization Control interface, Algorithm Control interface, and RF Control interface. It can be observed from Figures 4 that RFControl interface, SynchronizationControl interface, and AlgorithmControl interface shall be realized by SAControl component, in order for SAControl component to control RFIFComponent component, SASynchronization component, and SAAlgorithm component, respectively, according to the functions to be performed in the SAControl component.
8.1.1 DescriptionThe SAControl component takes on the definition as described in the UML Profile for Component Framework::Infrastructure::Service in addition to the realization of RFControl interface, AlgorithmControl interface, and SynchronizationControl interface. The SAControl component is used to control the entire Smart Antenna Subsystem with state behavior.Attributes <<readwrite>>OperationMode: SAOperationMode The OperationMode attribute sets on the operation mode of the Smart Antenna Subsystem. The operation mode shall be one of three modes, TRANSMIT, RECEIVE, and COMBINATION. This attribute is only used when the SAControl's state is ACTIVE.Types and Exceptions <<enumerationproperty>>SAOperationMode ( TRANSMIT, RECIEVE, COMBINATION )The SAOperationMode defines the operation mode of the Smart Antenna Subsystem.TRANSMIT: The Smart Antenna Subsystem operates in transmitting mode.RECEIVE: The Smart Antenna Subsystem operates in receiving mode.COMBINATION: The Smart Antenna Subsystem operates in both transmitting and receiving mode.
8.1.2 Operations registerAlgorithm(SAAlgorithm registeringAlgorithm)This operation is used to register the SAAlgorithm component with the AlgorithmControl interface. The SAAlgorithm component shall be registered with the AlgorithmControl interface in its initialization process. When the AlgorithmControl interface receives a registerAlgorithm call from the SAAlgorithm component, a reference to the SAAlgorithm component is provided. The AlgorithmControl interface adds the SAAlgorithm reference to its Algorithms attribute.
8.1.3 Operations registerSynch(SynchronizationComponent registeringSynch)This operation is used to register SynchronizationComponent component with SynchronizationControl interface. The SynchronizationComponent component shall be registered with SynchronizationControl interface in its initialization process. Types and Exceptions <<exception>>InvalidCalObjectReferenceThe InvalidCalObjectReference exception is raised when the CalibrationComponent reference received in the registerSynch call is nil or any error is encountered during the unregisterSynch call on the SynchronizationControl interface.
8.2.2 DescriptionThe Calibration interface is used to calibrate whole the entire RF/IF chains of the Smart Antenna System. Attributes <<readonly>>CalibrationTable: ComplexSequence The CalibrationTable attribute represents the output of the Calibration. Each element of the CalibrationTable represents a calibration-output which corresponds to each of the RF/IF chains. <<configureproperty>>ContinuousRun: Boolean The ContinuousRun attribute indicates whether or not the calibration is executed continuously. <<configureproperty>>CalibrationAccuracy: ComplexSequence The CalibrationAccuracy attribute represents the required variance of calibration-output. The required accuracy shall be configured in a ComplexSequence for to representing both amplitude and phase. <<configureproperty>>CalibrationPeriod: TimeType The CalibrationPeriod attribute is used to control the calibration period. <<queryproperty>>CalibrationTime: TimeType The CalibrationTime attribute return the time required for processing a single calibration processing using the active settings.
8.2.3 The CalibrationComponent component realizes the Calibration interface and extends the SASynchronization component. Calibration is to compensate for amplitude and phase differences of the RF/IF chain associated with each antenna in transmit and receive mode. The problem of calibration has arisen because the amplitude and phase characteristics of the signal path associated with each antenna are different from each other. Especially even if the optimal weight vector is computed from the received signal for uplink, such that the uplink communication of the smart antenna system can fully exploit the enhancements in both communication capacity and cell coverage downlink beam-forming can never be optimized without accurate calibration. In other words, the objective of calibration is to compensate for the mutual coupling effects between antenna array elements as well as for the mismatches of channel amplitude and/or channel phase in Smart Antenna Systems.
8.2.4 <<configureproperty>>ObservationLength: ULongThe ObservationLength attribute is used to configure the observation length in samples. <<readonly>>Timing: TimeType The Timing attribute represents the acquired symbol (or frame) timing. <<configureproperty>>Threshold: ULongLong The Threshold attribute is used to configure the threshold for signal detection. Since signals in the baseband are represented by complex numbers without unit, the Threshold attribute also has no unit.
8.2.5 The SynchronizationComponent component realizes the Synchronization interface and extends the SASynchronization component. Symbol (or frame) synchronization is a processing for detection of which detects the symbol (or frame) timing. Synchronization is performed prior to symbol demodulation of symbol (or frame decoding of frame) and operation of the smart antenna algorithm operation. To enhance the performance of the Smart Antenna System, accurate symbol (or frame) timing shall be provided is required. In addition, to guarantee the QoS (Quality of Service) of the initial network access, fast and robust acquisition of the initial access signal shall be provided to the Smart Antenna System.
8.3 In this section each function and interface in the Algorithm facilities is described. Figure 6 illustrates the Algorithm Facilities that which include the SAAlgorithm component, Algorithm components, which and the interfaces. The Algorithm components are the BeamformingComponent, STCComponent, SpatialMultiplexingComponent, DOAEstimationComponent, and ChannelEstimationComponent. And, the interfaces are the Beamforming interface, SpaceTimeCoding interface, SpatialMultiplexing interface, ChannelEstimation interface, and DOAEstimation interface.
8.3.1 DescriptionThe SAAlgorithm component is an abstract component from which all the components in the Algorithm Facilities shall inherit. In other words, this component provides every interface for controlling all the Algorithm components. Attributes <<configureproperty>>OperationType: AlgorithmOperationType The OperationType attribute sets an operation type of SAAlgorithm components. The operation type shall be one of the following three types, CONTUINUOUS, SINGLE_BURST, and REPEATED_BURST. <<queryproperty>>AvailableAlgorithm: AlgorithmType[1..*] The AvailableAlgorithm attribute represents a list of the algorithms available for use on the SAalgorithm. <<configureproperty>>ActiveAlgorithm: String The ActiveAlgorithm attribute sets algorithm or gets activated algorithm either sets or gets the active algorithm. <<configureproperty>>preData: Complex The preData attribute represents the pre-processing data which are used for calculating the beamforming weight vector. For example, the pre-processing data denote the pre-despreading data for CDMA systems and the pre-FFT data for OFDM(A) systems, etc. <<configureproperty>>postData: Complex The postData attribute represents the post-processing data which are used for calculating the beamforming weight vector. For example, the post-processing data denote the despread data for CDMA systems and the FFT data for OFDM(A) systems, etc.Types and Exceptions <<enumerationproperty>>AlgorithmOperationType ( CONTINUOUS, SINGLE_BURST, REPEATED_BURST ) The AlgorithmOperationType defines the operation type of data processing operation type. AlgorithmType(Name: String, Delay: TimeType, PowerConsumption: Float, TolerableBandwidth: Hertz) Name: The name of an algorithm as a String. Delay: The time required for an algorithm to perform a single algorithm execution. PowerConsumption: The power consumption for an algorithm to perform a single algorithm execution. TolerableBandwidth: The tolerable bandwidth for an algorithm to converge.
8.3.2 <<readonly>>BFWeights: ComplexSequenceThe BFWeights attribute is weight vectors are computed by the BeamformingComponent. When this attribute is read, the BeamformingComponent computes a new value from the received signals. When this attribute is set up, the BeamformingComponent applies a given value vector that provides the desired radiation pattern. <<configureproperty>>PolarUnit: Boolean The PolarUnit attribute is used to switch between the real/imag mode and the mag/phase mode of the Weights attribute. <<readwrite>>NullBFDirection: FloatSequence The NullBFDirection attribute is used to specify the directions of the nulls in degrees to block known sources of interference. <<readwrite>>FixedBFGainDirection: FloatSequence The FixedBFGainDirection attribute is used to specify fixed gains (dB) in fixed directions (degrees) to amplify weak signals in known directions. <<readwrite>>SideLobeLevel: FloatSequenceThe SideLobeLevel attribute is used to limit the side lobe level in decibel (dB). <<readonly>>OrderedEigenvalues: FloatSequence The OrderedEigenvalues attribute presents the eigen channel quality metrics used in the BeamformingComponent. <<readonly>>OrderedEigenvectors: ComplexSequence The OrderedEigenvectors attribute presents the eigen channel quality metrics used in the BeamformingComponent. <<readwrite>>MaxEigenChannels: Short The MaxEigenChannels attribute configures maximum number of eigen channels to be used in the BeamformingComponent.
8.3.4 <<readwrite>>STCPattern: STCMapping[1..*] The STCPattern attribute represents the actual definition of the STC mapping. Each input symbol of the STCComponent is mapped to one of the transmit antennas according to the STCMapping.
8.3.5 The STCComponent component extends the SAAlgorithm component and realizes the SpaceTimeCoding interface. The STCComponent is for Space Time Coding (STC) processing. A Space Time Coding (STC) is a method employed to improve the reliability of data transmission in wireless communication systems by using multiple transmit antennas. STCs rely on transmitting multiple, redundant copies of a data stream to the receiver in the hope that at least some of them may survive the physical path between transmission and reception in a good enough state to allow reliable decoding.
8.3.6 DescriptionThe SpatialMutiplexing interface is used to control the SpatialMultiplexingComponent.Attributes <<queryproperty>>AvailableSMScheme: SpatialMultiplexingType[1..*]The AvailableSMScheme attribute represents a list of the spatial multiplexing schemes available for use on the SpatialMultiplexingComponent. <<configureproperty>>ActiveSMScheme: SpatialMultiplexingTypeThe ActiveSMScheme attribute sets SpatialMultiplexingType or gets activated either sets or activates the SpatialMultiplexingType.Types and Exceptions <<Primitive>>SpatialMultiplexingTypeThe SpatialMultiplexingType, a specialization of String, denotes the type of the algorithm used for spatial multiplexing.(e.g.,V-BLAST, D-BLAST, H-BLAST, etc.).
8.3.7 The SpatialMultiplexingComponent component extends the SAAlgorithm component and realizes the SpatialMultiplexing interface. The SpatialMultiplexingComponent is for spatial multiplexing. The Spatial multiplexing is a transmission technique in MIMO wireless communication to that transmits independent and separately encoded data signals from each of the multiple transmit antennas.
8.3.8 Attributes <<readwrite>>ChannelCoherenceTime: TimeType The ChannelCoherenceTime attribute represents the channel coherence time. <<configureproperty>>ChannelEstimationPeriod: TimeType The ChannelEstimationPeriod attribute is used to control the channel estimation period. This attribute would be especially important to trade overhead time and processing against the rate of change in the channel due to platform motion, etc. <<configureproperty>> ChannelEstimationAccuracy: Complex The ChannelEstimationAccuracy attribute represents the required accuracy of the channel estimation. <<readwrite>>MaxEigenChannels: Short The MaxEigenChannels attribute configures the maximum number of eigen channels to be used in ChannelEstimationComponent.
8.3.9 The ChannelEstimationComponent component extends the SAAlgorithm component and realizes the ChannelEstimation interface. The Space-time equalization system or diversity combining system is implemented using the ChannelEstimationComponent. The Space-time Equalization is a receiving technique which makes use of temporal processing on the signals received from multiple antennas to correct frequency distortion in the received signal path. And, the diversity combining is another receiving technique that to mitigates the multipath fading effects, which are inherent in practical wireless networks, by combining the signals of multiple antennas.
8.3.10 <<readonly>>DOA: FloatSequence The DOA attribute represents the direction of arrival (DOA) angle in degree. <<configureproperty>>NumOfArrivals: UShort The NumOfArrivals specifies how many DOA estimates are required allowing for estimation of the arrival of the same signal from multiple directions. <<configureproperty>>DOAEstSignalType: ShortSequence The DOAEstimationSignalType attribute specifies the character type of the various signals to estimate. <<queryproperty>>DOAEstQuality: ULong The DOAEstQuality attribute indicates the DOA estimation quality.